In 1954, fossil human teeth belonging to the Middle Paleolithic Age were found in Dingcun Village, Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province. A fossil skullcap, the upper and lower jawbones ,and three teeth of the ape man were excavated in 1963 and 1964 in Lantian County (蓝田), Shaanxi Province. The Lantian Man lived some 500, 000-600, 000 years ago. But the most primitive ape man so far known to have existed in China is Yuanmou Man (元谋人), who lived about 1. 70 million years ago, and whose fossil teeth were discovered in 1965, in Yuanmou County, Yunnan Province. Besides these, we have fossil remains discovered in Maba in Guangdong, Changyang in Hubei, Liujiang in Guangxi and in the Yellow River Bed region. They all belong to the Paleolithic Age.
Neolithic remains distributed over an extensive area have been discovered in many parts of China. The finds include painted and black pottery and small stone implements, belonging to the period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages. Specimens of painted pottery (also known as Yangshao Culture) have been unearthed in an area extending from modern Henan, Shanxi and Shaanxi to Gansu. Specimens of black pottery (also known as Longshan Culture) have also been unearthed over a wide area, mainly in Shandong and the central plains.